City of Arts and Sciences in Valencia, Spain - also known as Museu de les Ciències Príncipe Felipe, was designed by renowned architect Santiago Calatrava, as a celebration of science, art, and nature.
Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias, Image Inroads
the project is made up of several different buildings including the Palau de les Arts Reina Sofía seen above. It also includes a planetarium, science museum and botanical garden.
Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias, Image Shadows
ephemeral shadows form below the glass panels as the afternoon sun meets the Spanish limestone exterior, a walker and their dog allow me to capture the sense of scale.
Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias, Image Operatic
here is a futuristic interpretation of a traditional opera house and concert hall. This dramatic structure is characterised by its flowing, organic shape, invoking a feeling of lightness and movement in the context of those who are lucky enough to enjoy it.
Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias, Image Visitors
the whole complex is designed to be a work of art, with its flowing, organic shapes and intricate details. The concept behind the project is to create a space that inspires creativity and imagination, and to promote the importance of scientific and artistic research.
Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias, Image Navigator
I was particularly drawn towards the geometric patterns and alternative views of the iconic buildings - with the Opera House resembling a Roman helmet. I enjoyed focusing on it's design with the help the evolving afternoon light.
Thien Duong Cave, Image Một
Thien Duong Cave also known as Paradise Cave is a natural wonder located in Vietnam’s Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park. The cave was first discovered in 2005 hidden amidst forested karst mountain peaks by a group of local explorers, and it quickly became a popular tourist destination due to its stunning limestone formations and vast underground chambers.
Thien Duong Cave, Image Hai
this marvel is believed to be over 300 million years old, and it continues to amaze visitors with its incredible size and beauty. My journey along the viewing platform was nothing short of mystical, as I pondered on the majesty and scale of this natural wonder, dwelling at the detail of the limestone formations and the depth of contrasting colours, created over a vast age.
Thien Duong Cave, Image Ba
it is one of the longest caves in the world, with over 31 kilometers of explored passages. The cave system includes numerous stalactites, stalagmites, and other formations, as well as several underground rivers and lakes. Paradise Cave has been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Thien Duong Cave, Image Bốn
the patterns on the ceiling are created by a process called 'cryptocrystalline crusting.' This is when mineral-rich water drips down from the ceiling of the cave and evaporates, leaving behind a thin layer of calcite crystals. Over time, this process can create intricate patterns on the ceiling of the cave that resemble an abstract painting and other ideas of pareidolia – from a swirling galaxy to an image of a fossil.
Thien Duong Cave, Image Năm
the patterns on the ceiling are mostly white or cream coloured, due to the calcite crystals that make them up. However, in some areas, you can find traces of other colours, such as red, yellow, or blue. These colours are caused by the presence of other minerals in the water that drips down from the ceiling. For example, iron can give the calcite a reddish colour, while manganese can give it a yellow or blue hue.
Thien Duong Cave, Image Sáu
one of the most fascinating things about the patterns on the ceiling of the cave is the way they change over time. As the water that drips down from the ceiling evaporates, the calcite crystals continue to grow. This process can cause the patterns to change and evolve, creating new shapes and details.
Setas de Sevilla, Entrance
The Metropol Parasol, or Setas de Sevilla as it is known in Spanish, is an iconic landmark in Seville, Spain. It was designed by German architect Jürgen Mayer and it was completed in 2011. The building is made up of a network of large, mushroom-like parasols that are supported by a series of timber columns.
Setas de Sevilla, Old to New
the site was previously occupied by a market square and an archaeological site. When the market square was demolished to make way for the new structure, a number of archaeological remains were discovered, including Roman and Moorish ruins.
Setas de Sevilla, Viewing Platform
architectural styles synonymous with Moorish rule can also be observed from the viewing platform above ground, as the surrounding neighborhoods showcase their central courtyards in contrast to the modern foreground.
Setas de Sevilla, Timber Column
the structure is now seen as a symbol of modernity and innovation, but was not universally well-received when it was first built. The modern design was critisised and perceived to be unharmonious besides the more traditional neighborhoods.
Setas de Sevilla, Above & Beyond
alternative views of the city can be enjoyed from the platform that snakes above the parasols, while locals and tourists enjoy the unique and vibrant space that serves a variety of purposes below.
Setas de Sevilla, Underbelly
the area now provides a break from the more densely populated parts of the city, a meeting point for old friends, a play area for school children and skateboarders. Cultural events from concerts, exhibitions and markets are also held here.
Hopar Glacier, Cryosphere 01
Pakistan is home to over 7,200 glaciers, more than anywhere else in the world outside of the polar regions. The glaciers are located in the mountainous regions of the Himalayas, Hindu Kush, and the Karakoram, all of which meet to form some of the highest mountains in the world.
Hopar Glacier, Cryosphere 02
glaciers are an important source of water, supporting life systems across this country of over 230 million people. In recent years, however, they have been shrinking due to rising temperatures.
Hopar Glacier, Cryosphere 03
In addition to temperatures rising, other causes highlighted by scientists include diminished snowfall, intensifying summer rains and rampant deforestation (source: Washington Post).
Hopar Glacier, Cryosphere 04
Pakistan is also considered one of the most water stressed countries in the world. The melting glaciers are reducing the amount of water available for drinking and agriculture and are increasing the risk of flooding.
Hopar Glacier, Cryosphere 05
In 2022, Pakistan experienced some of the worst flooding in its history. Caused by a combination of heavy monsoon rains and melting glaciers, it affected 33 million people across the country (source: UNICEF).
Hopar Glacier, Cryosphere 06
without a robust family planning campaign, the population is predicted to exceed 300 million by 2050 (source: UN) - we can only hope the governments efforts to plant a billion trees can mitigate some of the effects of climate change, especially on the most vulnerable segments of Pakistani society.